Richard Heron Anderson (October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a profession U.S. Army officer, combating with distinction within the Mexican–American War. He additionally served as a Confederate common throughout the American Civil War, combating within the Eastern Theater of the battle and most notably throughout the 1864 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. Anderson was additionally famous for his humility.
At the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, Anderson’s division was third in line of march approaching the city from the west on July 1, in order that they arrived late and had little involvement within the begin of the battle.
During the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, whereas working away from Longstreet’s command (as a result of Longstreet was on indifferent obligation close to Suffolk, Virginia, on the time), Anderson pressed the Union left whereas Lt. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked the precise. Anderson and Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws left the primary battle line on May 3, and struck east to verify the advance of Union Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick’s VI Corps that may have led into Gen. Robert E. Lee’s rear. Following the demise of Stonewall Jackson on May 10, Lee reorganized his military from two into three corps. Anderson was admired sufficient by Lee to be thought of for corps command, however as an alternative his division was assigned to the brand new Third Corps, commanded by now Lt. Gen A.P. Hill, who outranked Anderson and was one of many senior-most generals within the military. After reorganizing, Anderson retained most of his present command aside from Brig. Gen Lewis Armistead’s brigade, which was reassigned to George Pickett’s division.
During the Maryland Campaign, General Cadmus Wilcox’s brigade was added to Anderson’s command. At the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, he was in general command on the sunken highway, or “Bloody Lane”, within the heart of the Confederate protection. He was wounded within the thigh and left the battle. His senior brigadier Roger A. Pryor took over command. After Anderson’s departure, his division started to falter and ultimately succumb to Union flank assaults that routed them from their place. At the Battle of Fredericksburg that December, his division was not closely engaged.
After recovering, Anderson joined the Confederate Army of the Potomac in February 1862 (which was absorbed into the Army of Northern Virginia later within the spring) as a brigade commander. Anderson distinguished himself throughout the Peninsula Campaign, briefly assuming division command at Seven Pines when Longstreet was serving as a wing commander. At Seven Pines he gained the sobriquet “Fighting Dick”,[note 1] and was promoted to main common on July 14 and acquired command of General Benjamin Huger’s former division. As a part of Longstreet’s corps, Anderson fought at Second Bull Run. His division engaged the ultimate Union defensive position round Henry House Hill, however the solar was beginning to go down and he didn’t press the assault.
Anderson selected to observe his house state and the Confederate trigger, and he resigned from the U.S. Army (accepted on March 3, 1861) to enter service with the Confederate Army. Anderson accepted a fee as colonel of the first South Carolina Regulars as of January 28. He was given command of the Charleston harbor space after the seize of Fort Sumter that April. He was promoted to brigadier common on July 19 and transferred to Pensacola, Florida, the place he was wounded within the left elbow throughout the Battle of Santa Rosa Island on October 9.
After Mexico, Anderson was promoted to first lieutenant within the 2nd U.S. Dragoons on July 13, 1848, was once more on recruiting obligation in 1849. He returned to the Carlisle Barracks from 1849 to 1850, after which was recruiting as soon as extra till 1852. Next got here frontier obligation in a number of Texas installations, together with at Fort Graham in 1852 to 1853, at Fort McKavett from 1853 to 1854, at San Antonio in 1854, and at Fort McKavett in 1855. He was promoted to captain on March 3, 1855, and was stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas, from 1855 to 1856. Anderson was nonetheless serving in Kansas throughout the border troubles of 1856 and 1857, then was recruiting in addition to his final stint on the Carlisle Barracks in 1858. He participated within the Utah War of 1858 and 1859, and was on obligation at Fort Kearny, Nebraska, from 1859 to 1861.
In the Mexican–American War, Anderson took half within the Siege of Veracruz in March 1847 after which skirmishing close to La Hoya on June 9. He fought within the Battle of Contreras on August 19, the skirmish close to San Agustin Altapulco the next day, and the Battle of Molino del Rey on September 8. For gallantry throughout the combating close to San Agustin, he was brevetted to the rank of first lieutenant as of August 17. Anderson additionally participated within the combat for and seize of Mexico City from September 12–14.
Anderson graduated fortieth out of 56 cadets from the United States Military Academy in July 1842, and was brevetted a second lieutenant within the 1st U.S. Dragoons. He served the cavalry college for observe on the U.S. Army Barracks in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1842. Anderson spent 1843 on frontier obligation within the American West, serving first at Little Rock, Arkansas, after which on garrison obligation at Forts Gibson and Washita, each situated within the Indian Territory. His regiment escorted the U.S. Indian Agent to Red River in 1843, after which returned to Fort Washita, remaining there till 1844. Anderson was promoted to second lieutenant on July 16, 1844, and served at Fort Jesup, Louisiana, from 1844 to 1845. His regiment then joined the expedition for the navy occupation of Texas in 1845, and Anderson was on recruiting obligation in 1846.
Anderson was born within the High Hills of Santee at Borough House Plantation (Hill Crest), close to the city of Stateburg situated in Sumter County, South Carolina. He was the son of Dr. William Wallace Anderson and his spouse, Mary Jane Mackensie, and the grandson of American Revolutionary War hero and namesake Richard Anderson.
Sumter County, South Carolina
Sumter County, South Carolina